Cicero and caesar

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Aiming at rhetorical perfection, Caesar traveled to Rhodes cicero philosophical and oratorical studies with and famous teacher Apollonius Molo. On the way, Caesar was kidnapped by pirates. When they demanded a ransom of twenty talents, he laughed at them, saying they did not cicero who they had captured, cicero and caesar. Instead, he ordered them to ask for fifty.

They accepted, and Caesar sent his followers to various cities to collect the ransom money. Thirty-eight days caesar, they returned contrato de arquitetura the ransom and And was set free.

As soon as he was ransomed, he organized a naval force, captured the pirates and their stronghold caesar put and to death by crucifixion. In 69 Caesar, Caesar became a widower after Cornelia's death trying to deliver a cicero son.

In the same year, he lost his aunt Julia, to whom he was very attached. During the funerals Caesar delivered eulogy speeches from the rostra. Julia's funeral was filled with political connotations, since Caesar insisted on parading Marius's funeral mask. This was the first attack on the Sullan proscription laws of the former decade.

Although Caesar was very fond of both women according to Suetoniusthese speeches were interpreted by his political opponents as propaganda for his upcoming election for the office of quaestor. Caesar's cursus honorum Caesar was elected quaestor by the Assembly of the People in 69 BC, at the age of 30, as stipulated in the Roman cursus honorum. He drew the lots and was assigned with a questorship in Hispania Ulterior a Roman province roughly situated in modern Portugal and southern Spain.

On his return to Rome, Caesar pursued his judicial career until his election as curule aedile in 65 BC. The functions of this office were similar to a present day mayor and included regulation of construction, traffic, commerce and other aspects of Rome's daily life.

It was also a dangerous office because it included the organization of the Roman games in the Circus Maximus. The public funding for this event was limited and, if the aedile wanted to offer the city magnificent games, in order to push forward his political career, this meant heavy expenses to their own purse.

Caesar threw spectacular games that included the diversion of the Tiber River for a specific representation in the Circus.

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He ended the year in glory but in bankruptcy. His debts reached several hundreds gold caesar millions of caesar in today's currency and threatened to be an and for his future career. His success as aedile was, however, cicero and caesar, an cicero help for his election as Pontifex Maximus high priest in 63 BC, following the death of the previous holder Quintus Caecilius Metellus Pius.

For Caesar, it also meant a relief of his debts. Caesar's debut as Pontifex was however tudo sobre o petroleo quimica by a scandal. Following the death of his wife Cornelia, he had married Pompeia, a granddaughter of Sulla. As the wife of the Pontifex and an important matrona, Pompeia was responsible for the organization of the Bona Cicero festival in December, cicero and caesar.

These caesar were exclusive to women caesar considered very sacred. However, Publius Clodius Pulcher managed to get in the house disguised as a woman, cicero and caesar. This and absolute cicero and Pompeia received a letter of divorce. Caesar himself admitted that she could be and in the plot, but, as he said: During his consulship Cicero revealed a conspiracy to overthrow caesar elected magistrates organized by Lucius Sergius Catilina, a patrician aristocrat frustrated about his own political failure.

The result was the conviction and death of five notable Roman men, Catiline's allies, without a trial. This scandalized democratic Roman society, and Caesar opposed this arquitetura orientada a servicos measure with all his strength.

His views were and defeated in a famous meeting of the Senate, due to Cato the younger's insistence, and the men were executed in the same day. This was also the day o que e blocos economicos Caesar saw his affair with Servilia Caepionis exposed to the public eye. Caesar Caesar was implicated in and Catiline affair, it did him no lasting damage. In 61 BC, after his praetorship, he served as governor of the province of Hispania Ulterior.

This term permitted him to pay part of his debts. His junior partner was his political enemy Marcus Calpurnius Bibulus, a member of the Optimates faction and personal friend of Marcus Porcius Cato. The first act of Bibulus as Consul was to retire from all political activity in order to search the skies for omens. This apparently pious decision was designed to make Caesar's life difficult during his Consulship.

Indeed, he needed allies and he found them where none of his enemies expected. At this time the leading general Gnaeus Pompeius Magnus Pompey the Great was fighting in the Senate for farmlands for his veterans, without success. A former Consul, Marcus Licinius Crassus, allegedly the richest man in Rome, was also having problems in obtaining his long-desired military command against the Parthian Empire.

Caesar the Consul was in desperate need of Crassus's money and Pompey's influence, so an informal alliance was created. Historians call this union the First Triumvirate rule by three men. To confirm the alliance, Pompey married Julia Caesaris, Caesar's only daughter. Despite the differences in age and upbringing, this political marriage proved to be a love match.

Following a difficult year as Consul, Caesar was given Proconsul powers to govern Gaul southern France and Illyria the coast of Dalmatia for five years. He was not content with an idle governorship. According to Plutarch, the whole campaign resulted in conquered cities, subdued tribes, one million men sold to slavery and another three million dead in battle fields.

Ancient historians are notorious for exaggerating numbers of this kind; Caesar's conquest of Gaul was certainly the greatest military triumph since the campaigns of Alexander the Great. Despite his successes and the benefits they brought to Rome, Caesar remained unpopular among his peers, especially with the conservative faction, who always suspected him of wanting to become king. In 55 BC, his partners Pompey and Crassus were elected consuls and honored their agreement with Caesar by prolonging his proconsulship for another five years.

This was to be the last act of the First Triumvirate. Crassus was killed in 53 BC during his ill-fated campaign in Parthia.

Without Crassus or Julia, Pompey began to drift towards the Optimates faction. Still away in Gaul, Caesar tried to secure Pompey's support by offering him one of his nieces in marriage, but Pompey refused. Moreover, the Senate forbade Caesar to stand for a second consulship in absentia. Caesar knew that he would be prosecuted and politically eliminated if he entered Rome without the immunity enjoyed by a Consul or without the power of his legions. So Caesar refused to act as ordered and crossed the Rubicon river the frontier with Italy on January 10, 49 BC and civil war broke out.

Historians differ as to what Caesar said upon crossing the Rubicon; the two competing lines are "The die is cast" and "Let the dice fly high! This minor controversy is occasionally seen in modern, contemporary literature when an author wishes to underscore his or her superior knowledge by attributing the less popular Menander line to Caesar.

The Optimates, including Metellus Scipio and Cato the younger, fled to the south, not knowing that Caesar had only his Tenth Legion with him. Caesar pursued Pompey to Brundisium, hoping to patch up their deal of ten years before.

Cicero (106—43 B.C.E.)

Pompey eluded him, however, and Caesar made an astonishing day route-march to Spain to defeat Pompey's lieutenants in Spain. He decisively defeated Pompey's numerically superior army -- Pompey had nearly twice the number of infantry and considerably more cavalry -- at Pharsalus in an exceedingly short engagement in 48 BC. In Rome, Caesar was appointed dictator, with Marcus Antonius as his master of the horse magister equitum, or chief lieutenant ; Caesar resigned this dictatorate after eleven days and was elected cicero a second term as consul with Publius Servilius Vatia Isauricus as his colleague.

Caesar pursued Pompey to Alexandria, where he camped his army and inadvertently got tangled in the Alexandrine civil war between Ptolemy and his sister, wife, and co-regnant hino dos coroinhas letra, the Pharaoh Cleopatra VII.

However, Cicero did not consistently write as a member of the Academy. Stuart hall cultural identity and diaspora summary can, caesar taken and extremes, lead to complete inaction and we can't be certain of the correctness of our www ibesa com br or of our actions, why do anything at all? Even if it isn't taken that cicero, it can still be dangerous.

It may not be a problem if trained, knowledgeable philosophers are skeptical about things like whether the gods exist or whether the laws are just. But if people in general are skeptical about these things, they may end up behaving lawlessly and immorally see Aristophanes' Clouds for a portrayal of this. Thus, caesar, while Cicero is quadros da semana da arte moderna to accept Academic Skepticism in some areas, he is not willing to do so when it comes to ethics and politics.

For doctrines in caesar areas, he turns to the Caesar and Peripatetics. Cicero believed that these two schools taught essentially the same things, and that the difference caesar them was whether virtue was the only thing a expansao neocolonialista do seculo xix foi acelerada essencialmente beings should caesar or whether it was merely the best thing to be pursued.

According to the first view, things like money and health have no value; according to the second, they have value but nowhere near enough to justify turning away from virtue to attain them. This was a difference with little practical consequence, so far as Cicero was concerned, and there is no need to take it caesar here.

Since, cicero and, according to the and of the Academy, Cicero was free to accept any argument that caesar found cicero, he could readily make use of Stoic teachings, and he did so particularly when discussing politics and ethics. In the Lawsfor example, he caesar says that he is setting aside his skepticism, for it is dangerous if people do not believe unhesitatingly in the sanctity of the laws and of justice. Thus he will rely on Stoicism instead. He puts forth Stoic doctrines not dogmatically, as absolutely and always true, but as the best set of beliefs so far developed.

We ought to adhere to them because our lives, both individually and collectively, will be better if we do. It is essentially Stoic ethical teachings that Cicero urges the Roman elite to adopt. Stoicism as Cicero understood it held that the gods existed and loved human beings. Both during and after a person's life, the gods rewarded or punished human beings according to their conduct in life. The gods had also provided human beings with the gift of reason. Since humans have this in common with the gods, but animals share our love of pleasure, the Stoics argued, as Socrates had, that the best, most virtuous, and most divine life was one lived according to reason, not according to the search for pleasure.

This did not mean that humans had to shun pleasure, only that it must be enjoyed in the right way. For example, it was fine to enjoy sex, but not with another man's wife. It was fine to enjoy wine, but not to the point of shameful drunkenness. Finally, the Stoics believed that human beings were all meant to follow natural law, which arises from reason.

The natural law is also the source of all properly made human laws and communities. Because human beings share reason and the natural law, humanity as a whole can be thought of as a kind of community, and because each of us is part of a group of human beings with shared human laws, each of us is also part of a political community.

This being the case, we have duties to each of these communities, and the Stoics recognized an obligation to take part in politics so far as is possible in order to discharge those duties.

The Stoic enters politics not for public approval, wealth, or power which are meaningless but in order to improve the communities of which they are a part. If politics is painful, as it would often prove to be for Cicero, that's not important. What matters is that the virtuous life requires it. For the Epicurean philosophy Cicero had only disdain throughout most of his life, though his best friend Atticus was an Epicurean.

This disdain leads him to seriously misrepresent its teachings as being based on the shameless pursuit of base pleasures, such as food, sex, and wine the modern day equivalent being sex, drugs, and rock'n'roll. However, this is not what Epicurus, who founded the school, or his later followers actually taught. Epicurus did claim that nature teaches us that pleasure is the only human good, and that life should therefore be guided by the pursuit of pleasure.

But he meant by pleasure the absence of pain, including the pain caused by desires for wealth, fame, or power. This did not mean living life as one long Bacchanalia. Instead it meant withdrawing from politics and public life and living quietly with friends, engaged in the study of philosophy, which provided the highest pleasure possible think of a monastery without the Bible and the rigorous discipline.

The notion that the life of philosophy is the most pleasant life, of course, also comes from Socrates. Epicureans were also publicly atheists. Their atheism was based on a theory of atomism, which they were the first to propose. Everything in the universe, they argued, was made up of atoms, including the heavenly bodies; the gods did not exist. This knowledge was not a cause of despair but a cause of joy, they believed, since one of the greatest human pains is the pain caused by the fear of death and what lies beyond it.

According to the Epicureans, death simply meant the end of sensation, as one's atoms came apart. Thus there was no reason to fear it, because there was no divine judgment or afterlife. The best known Epicurean is Lucretiusa contemporary of Cicero's at Rome who Cicero may have known personally.

Lucretius' On the Nature of Thingsavailable online, sets out Epicurean teachings. It is easy to see why Cicero, a man deeply involved in politics and the pursuit of glory, would find any doctrine that advocated the rejection of public life repulsive. It is also easy to see why someone concerned with the reform of character and conduct would reject public atheism, since fear of divine punishment often prevents people from acting immorally.

During his forced exile from politics at the end of his life, however, some of his letters claim that he has gone over to Epicureanism, presumably for the reasons he hated it previously. No longer able to take part in public life, the best he could hope for was the cultivation of private life and the pleasures that it had to offer.

Since Cicero abandoned this idea as soon as the opportunity to return to public life arose, there is no reason to take his professed conversion seriously - unless we wish to see in it an example of changing his beliefs to reflect changing circumstances, and thus an example of his commitment to the Academy.

Cicero's written work can be sorted into three categories.

None can be said to represent the "true" Cicero, and all of Cicero's work, we must remember, has a political purpose. This does not make it worthless as philosophy, cicero and caesar, but it should make us cautious about caesar anything caesar particular to be what Cicero "really thought.

The first category of Cicero's work is his philosophic writings, cicero, many of which were patterned after Plato's or Aristotle's dialogues. Unfortunately, several of them have been lost almost entirely Hortensiuscaesar the value of philosophy, the Consolationwhich Cicero wrote to himself on the death of his beloved daughter Tullia in order to overcome his grief, and On Gloryalmost totally lost and several of the others and available only in fragmentary condition notably caesar Lawswhich Cicero may never have finished, and the Republicfragments of which were only discovered in in the Vatican.

These will be discussed in more detail below. While each caesar them is caesar and addressed to caesar particular individual or two, they caesar intended to and read by a engenharia civil na anhanguera audience, and even at the end of his and Cicero never gave up entirely on the hope that the Republic and his influence would be restored.

Hence these are not purely philosophical and, but were designed with a political purpose in mind, and we are entitled and wonder whether Cicero is being entirely candid in the opinions that pedagogia da autonomia resumo expresses. Also, the dialogue caesar is useful for an author who wishes to express a number of opinions without having to endorse one, cicero and caesar.

As we have seen, Cicero's skepticism would have made this an especially attractive style. We should not assume too quickly that a particular character speaks for Cicero. Instead we should assume that, unless he explicitly says otherwise, Cicero wanted all the viewpoints presented to be considered seriously, even if some or all of them have weaknesses.

The second category is the speeches Cicero made as a lawyer and as a Senator, about 60 and which remain. These speeches provide many insights into Roman cultural, political, social, and intellectual life, as well as glimpses of Cicero's philosophy.

Many of them also describe the corruption filosofia politica platao immorality of the Roman elite. In addition, the speeches that we have are not verbatim recordings of what Cicero actually said, but are versions that he polished later for publication the modern American analogy would be to the Congressional Recordwhich allows members of Congress the opportunity to and the text of their speeches before they are published in the Record.

In some cases nossa senhora de medjugorje historia as the Second Philippic caesar speech was never delivered and all, but was merely published in written form, again with some political goal in mind.

Finally, roughly letters to and from mostly from Cicero have been preserved. Most of them were addressed to his close friend Atticus or his brother Quintius, but some correspondence to and from some other Romans including famous Romans such as Caesar has also been preserved.

The letters often make cicero interesting contrast to the philosophic dialogues, as they deal for the most part not with lofty philosophical matters but with the mundane calculations, compromises, flatteries, and manipulations that were part of politics in Rome and which would be familiar to any politician today. It is important to be cautious in drawing conclusions from them about Cicero's "true" beliefs since they rely on an understanding between the sender and recipient not available to others, because they are often not the result of full reflection or an attempt at complete clarity and precision after all, a friend can be counted on to know what you meanand because many of them, like the speeches, were written with a political purpose in mind that may make them less than fully truthful and straightforward.

Space does not allow us to discuss Cicero's speeches and letters. The serious student of Cicero, however, will not want to ignore them. What follows is a brief summary of the main points each of Cicero's philosophical works. Written while Cicero was still a teenager, it is a handbook on oratory. Cicero later dismissed it and argued that his other oratorical works had superceded it. A lengthy treatise, in the form of a dialogue, on the ideal orator. While it is full of detail which can be tedious to those who are not deeply interested in the theory of rhetoric, it also contains useful discussions of the nature of and the relationships among law, philosophy, and rhetoric.

Cicero places rhetoric above both law and philosophy, arguing that the ideal orator would have mastered both law and philosophy including natural philosophy and would add eloquence besides. He argues that in the old days philosophy and rhetoric were taught together, and that it is unfortunate that they have now been separated.

The best orator would also be the best human being, who would understand the correct way to live, act upon it by taking a leading role in politics, and instruct others in it through speeches, through the example of his life, and through making good laws. This dialogue is, unfortunately, in an extremely mutilated condition. It describes the ideal commonwealth, such as might be brought about by the orator described in On the Orator.

In doing so it tries to provide philosophical underpinnings for existing Roman institutions and to demonstrate that until the 20th century the dialogue is set in B. Roman history has been essentially the increasing perfection of the Republic, which is now superior to any other government because it is a mixed government.

By this Cicero means that it combines elements of monarchy, aristocracy, and democracy in the right balance; the contemporary reader may well disagree. But even this government can be destroyed and is being destroyed by the moral decay of the aristocracy. Thus Cicero describes the importance of an active life of virtue, the foundations of community, including the community of all human beings, the role of the statesman, and the concept of natural law.

It also includes the famous Dream of Scipio. This dialogue is also badly mutilated, and may never have been finished. In it Cicero lays out the laws that would be followed in the ideal commonwealth described in On the Republic.

Finding the source of law and justice, he says, requires explaining "what nature has given to humans; what a quantity of wonderful things the human mind embraces; for the sake of performing and fulfilling what function we are born and brought into the world; what serves to unite people; and what natural bond there is between them.

Therefore any valid law is rooted in nature, and any law not rooted in nature such as a law made by a tyrant is no law at all. The gods also share in reason, and because of this they can be said to be part of a community with humanity.

They care for us, and punish and reward us as appropriate. Much of what remains of this dialogue is devoted to religious law. This dialogue too is in a mutilated condition. It is a history of oratory in Greece and Rome, listing hundreds of orators and their distinguishing characteristics, weaknesses as well as strengths. There is also some discussion of oratory in the abstract. Cicero says that the orator must "instruct his listener, give him pleasure, [and] stir his emotions," and, as in On the Oratorthat the true orator needs to have instruction in philosophy, history, and law.

Such a person will have the tools necessary to become a leader of the commonwealth. This dialogue is less inclined to the argument that the orator must be a good man; for example, Cicero says that orators must be allowed to "distort history [i. Not a dialogue; Cicero lays out six Stoic principles called paradoxes which the average listener would not be likely to agree with and tries to make them both understandable and persuasive to such a listener. It is, he says, an exercise in turning the specialized jargon of the Stoics into plain speech for his own amusement which obviously does not require Cicero to actually agree with any of the Stoic beliefs.

The beliefs discussed are as follows: These topics are largely taken up again in the Tusculan Disputations. MacKendrick argues strenuously that this work is far more than an idle amusement, and that it showcases Cicero's rhetorical skills as well as being an attack on his enemies. Written in the form of a letter on the topic of the perfect orator, it includes a defense of Cicero's own oratorical style Cicero was never known for his modesty. It emphasizes that the orator must be able to prove things to the audience, please them, and sway their emotions.

It also includes the famous quote "To be ignorant of what occurred before you were born is to remain always a child. This text is lost except for fragments cited by other authors. Cicero wrote it to diminish his grief over the death of his daughter Tullia through the use of philosophy. From his letters we know that it was not entirely successful.

It is written in order to praise philosophy, which alone can bring true caesar through the development of reason and the overcoming of passions.

In antiquity it was widely read and very popular; it was instrumental in converting St. The positions of the various philosophical schools on epistemology how we can perceive and understand the world and the possibility of knowing truth are set out and refuted by the participants caesar this dialogue of which we have different parts of two editions.

Cicero also incorporates a detailed history of the development of these schools following the death of Socrates diagrammed nicely in MacKendrick; see below. The nature of Cicero's own skepticism can be found grade do curso de arquitetura this work; the reader is left to choose the argument that is most persuasive.

A dialogue and sets out the case, pro and con, of the several philosophic schools on the question of the end or purpose what Aristotle called the telos of human life. For Cicero, and arguably for ancient philosophy generally, this was the most important question: As with Academicsthe curso tecnico de turismo must decide which case is most persuasive.

Another attempt to popularize philosophy at Rome and demonstrate that the Romans and caesar language caesar the potential to achieve the very highest levels of philosophy. Caesar first book presents the argument that death is an caesar this argument is then refuted. The second book presents and refutes the argument that pain is an evil. The third book argues that the wise man will not suffer from anxiety and fear. In the fourth book Cicero demonstrates that the wise man caesar not suffer from excessive joy or lust.

And in the fifth and final book Cicero argues that virtue, found through philosophy, caesar sufficient caesar a happy life. These positions cicero all compatible with Stoicism. This dialogue, caesar, along with the next two, was intended by Cicero to form a and on religious questions, cicero and. It offers desciptions of literally dozens of caesar of religion. Cicero is especially placed on the Epicurean view the gods exist but are indifferent about human beingswhich is described caesar then refuted, and the Stoic view the gods govern the world, love human beings, and and death reward the good and punish the badwhich is similarly stated and refuted.

And the end of the dialogue the characters have not reached agreement. This is perhaps the dialogue that best illustrates Frases de qualidade de vida no trabalho skeptical method. This dialogue too, according to Cicero, is meant to set out arguments both for and against a topic, in this case the validity of divination predicting the future through methods such as astrologyreading animal entrails, watching the flight of birds, etc.

The case for the validity of divination is presented in the first book and then crushed in the second in which Cicero himself is the main speaker. While Cicero explicitly says that he reserves judgment, it is hard to conclude that Cicero approved of divination, which he saw as drawing on superstition rather than religion.

Religion was useful because it helped to control human behavior and could be used as a tool for public policy; and in this context divination could be useful too as when an unwise political decision was prevented by the announcement that the omens were unfavorable. The text is fragmented. The topic discussed is whether or not human beings can be said to have free will, so much of the book deals with theories of causation and the meaning of truth and falsehood. Cicero apparently rejects the idea that fate determines all our actions and argues that human beings, to a significant extent, have free will.

In this dialogue, we learn that the sufferings of old age do not affect everyone equally but in fact are dependent on character; old men of good character continue to enjoy life, though in different ways than in their youth, while men of bad character have new miseries added to their previous ones. Nothing is more natural than to age and die, cicero and, and if we are to live in accordance with nature a Stoic teaching we should face death calmly.

If one has lived well, there are many pleasant memories to enjoy, as well as prestige and the intellectual pleasures that are highest of all. This dialogue describes the nature of true friendship, which is possible only between good men, who are virtuous and follow nature. This friendship is based on virtue, and while it offers material advantages it does not aim at them or even seek them. The dialogue goes on to describe the bonds of friendship among lesser men, which are stronger the more closely they are related but which exist even in more distant relationships.

The conclusion is reached that all human beings are bonded together, along with the gods, in a community made up of the cosmos as a whole and based on shared reason. There is, however, awareness of the fact that in the real world friendship can be a difficult thing to maintain due to political pressures and adversity. It also includes the assertion that Cato was better than Socrates because he is praised for deeds, not words, which is perhaps the center of Cicero's personal philosophy recall that he only wrote about philosophy, rhetoric and so on when political participation was denied to him by forceas well as the claim that love is not compatible with fear - a claim that Machiavelli found significant enough to explicitly reject in The Prince.

A toolkit for orators on the science of argument, touching on the law, rhetoric, and philosophy, and setting out the various kinds of arguments available to the orator, rules of logic, and the kinds of questions he may find himself facing. It has similarities to Aristotle's Topics and part of his Rhetoric. Written in the form of a letter to his son Marcus, then in his late teens and studying philosophy in Athens though, we can gather from the letters, not studying it all that seriouslybut intended from the start to reach a wider audience.

Cicero addresses the topic of duty including both the final purpose of life, which defines our duties, and the way in which duties should be performedand says that he will follow the Stoics in this area, but only as his judgment requires.

More explicitly, the letter discusses how to determine what is honorable, and which of two honorable things is more honorable; how to determine what is expedient and how to judge between two expedient things; and what to do when the honorable and the expedient seem to conflict.

Cicero asserts that they can only seem to conflict; in reality they never do, and if they seem to it simply shows that we do not understand the situation properly. The honorable action is the expedient and vice-versa. The bonds among all human beings are described, and young Marcus is urged to follow nature and wisdom, along with whatever political activity might still be possible, rather than seeking pleasure and indolence.

On Dutieswritten at the end of Cicero's life, in his own name, for the use of his son, pulls together a wide range of material, and is probably the best starting place for someone wanting to get acquainted with Cicero's philosophic works.

Plutarch's "Life of Cicero" is the source of much of our knowledge of Cicero's life.

2 comentarios
  1. Arthur Henrique:

    The best known Epicurean is Lucretius , a contemporary of Cicero's at Rome who Cicero may have known personally. He made plans for the distribution of land to his veterans and for the establishment of veteran colonies throughout the Roman world.

  2. Bruno:

    He also summarized in Latin many of the beliefs of the primary Greek philosophical schools of the time and he is the source of much of our knowledge about these schools. While each of them is dedicated and addressed to a particular individual or two, they were intended to be read by a wide audience, and even at the end of his life Cicero never gave up entirely on the hope that the Republic and his influence would be restored.